Like other Caucasus populations, the Druze may even be genetically adapted to cope with the thinner mountain air allowing them to live comfortably in these remote parts. The relationship between the Druze and Jews has been controversial,[215] Anti-Jewish (antisemitic) bias material is contained in the Druze literature such as the Epistles of Wisdom; for example in an epistle ascribed to one of the founders of Druzism, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana,[216] probably written sometime between AD 1027 and AD 1042, accused Jews of killing the sacred prophets. These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination. This propaganda also was broadcast in the Arab world, mainly Egypt. Hamza bin Ali refutes such claims by stating that if the esoteric interpretation of taharah (purity) is purity of the heart and soul, it doesn't mean that a person can discard his physical purity, as salat (prayer) is useless if a person is untruthful in his speech and that the esoteric and exoteric meanings complement each other. In the Epistles of Wisdom, Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad warns al-Darazi, saying, "Faith does not need a sword to aid it". In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups,[233] and both practice endogamy,[19] and both typically do not proselytize. Roughly two-thirds say they have a special responsibility to take care of Druze in need around the world. [63] He came to Fatimid Egypt in 1014 or 1016[63] and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. During the reign of al-Hakim (996 - 1021) the Druze creed came into being, blending Islamic monotheism with Greek philosophy and Hindu influences. Unlike Hinduism, the Druze believe human males are only reincarnated as human males, and similar for females. The general relation with the Druze and Hindus is the peace and calmness value of it as we both believe in staying serene. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. [86][page needed], Travelers like Niebuhr, and scholars like Max von Oppenheim, undoubtedly echoing the popular Druze belief regarding their own origin, have classified them as Arabs. [139] Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles. Future public sector leaders' series labeled them as infidels and argued that, even though they might behave like Muslims on the outside, this is no more than a pretense. Jean-Marc Aractingi, La Face Cachée des Druzes " Les Francs-Maçons de l'Orient" , 251 pages, Editeur : Independently published (6 juillet 2020), Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Les Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie", in, Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Points de convergence dans les rituels et symboles chez les Druzes et chez les francs-maçons", in, Pinhas Inabri "Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? The battle was fought between two Druze factions: the Yemeni and the Kaysi. The Qaysite party represented the Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. One of the main evidences is the belief in reincarnation, butthere is a main difference between the Druze and the Hindus concerningthis issue. The Maronite Catholic and the Druze founded modern Lebanon in the early eighteenth century, through the ruling and social system known as the "Maronite-Druze dualism" in Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.[212]. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders, the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. [160][159], Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution. B. Hinduism C. Judaism D. Christianity E. Islam. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahlé, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya, and other towns of Lebanon. [86][page needed]. [112][page needed], After the Shishakli's military campaign, the Druze community lost much of its political influence, but many Druze military officers played important roles in the Ba'ath government currently ruling Syria. As powerful warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the Crusades, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. [71], The call was suspended briefly between 19 May 1018 and 9 May 1019 during the apostasy of al-Darazi and again between 1021 and 1026 during a period of persecution by Ali az-Zahir for those who had sworn the oath to accept the call. The Seven Druze precepts are:[138], Complicating their identity is the custom of taqiyya—concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from Ismailism and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many teachings are kept secretive. Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God in Islam,[196][197] and in the Druze faith, Muhammad is considered an important prophet of God,[147][148] being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history.[30]. [85], With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by Sultan Selim I in 1516, the Ma'ans were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon. [241], The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent. One author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the person. They wear al-mandÄ«l on their heads to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouths. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in Constantinople.) [204] The Druze faith does not follow Sharia nor the Five Pillars of Islam, such as the Salah five times every day, paying the Zakat, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca. Druze is the exonym of a religious group whose adherents refer to themselves as الموحدون (Those who believe in One God) or بنو معروف (Those who hold Secret Wisdom). Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the PLO. And by zooming in on the area, our genetic GPS traced most Druze to the region that overlaps northeast Turkey, southwest Armenia and northern Iraq. Those are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of the Ê»uqqāl. While the spiritual elements of their religion … In the Hebrew Bible Jethro was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian,[235] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. [77][78], Some Druze and non-Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and Sami Makarem state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early preacher al-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical. The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and coexistence,[95][96][97][98] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. Druze are not considered Muslims by those belonging to orthodox Islamic schools of thought. Their beliefs include elements of Hinduism, Greek philosophy, Islam, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity, and some features that are unique to the Druze. They strongly believe in mysticism and reincarnation, and hold Moses , Jethro, John the Baptist, Jesus and Mohammed all to be prophets. This is an example of what? In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Neglecting this warning, individual seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and other figures divine. [71] Al-Hakim preferred Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad over him and al-Darazi was executed in 1018, leaving Hamza the sole leader of the new faith. During the reign of the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt, in the 10th and 11th centuries, the Druze religion was formed, combining tenets of Islam with the philosophy of the Greeks and Hindus. The belief in reincarnation had first existed among Jewish mystics in the Ancient World, among whom differing explanations were given of the afterlife, although with a universal belief in an immortal soul. [227] Israeli Druze citizens serve in the Israel Defense Forces. [168] The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate,[50][169] Mamluk,[86] Sunni Ottoman Empire,[170][93] and Egypt Eyalet. They are Arabs who speak the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant (eastern Mediterranean). According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok. However, they were less ready for personal relationships with Jews compared to Israeli Muslims and Christians.[232]. The prevailing idea among Druzes themselves today is that they are of Arab stock. Genetic evidence also suggests that over the years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze gene pool. In God, there are no attributes distinct from his essence. Beliefs and practices are hidden for protection from persecution. [14], The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity. The khalwat may be known as majlis in local languages. Their monotheistic religion incorporates many beliefs from Islam, Judaism and Christianity, and is also influenced by Greek philosophy and Hinduism. Holy places of the Druze are archaeological sites important to the community and associated with religious holidays[155] – the most notable example being Nabi Shu'ayb, dedicated to Jethro, who is a central figure of the Druze religion. French intervention on behalf of the Maronites did not help the Maronite national movement, since France was restricted in 1860 by Britain, which did not want the Ottoman Empire dismembered. One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless", and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze". [52][83], It was during the period of Crusader rule in Levant (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf Mountains. Male Ê»uqqāl often grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called the shirwal, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority of the Ê»uqqāl. The faith was preached by Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar from Zozan, Khorasan, in the Samanid Empire. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam's ISLAMAILISM, Judaism, Christianity, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagorean, Hinduism according to some, and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to esoterically interpret religious scriptures and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an (the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. As a religious minority in every country in which they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes. A total of 311 Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the Golan Heights, 183 from the Galilee, and 35 from Mount Carmel, as well as 27 Druze immigrants from Syria and 29 from Lebanon. In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et al. They are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not fully allow non Druzes in, though they themselves integrate fully in their adopted homelands. The two faiths share a common place of origin in the Middle East and consider themselves to be monotheistic. [21][22][23][24][25] It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. The Druze allegedly had immoral images, similar to some sects of Hinduism, but that is wrong, too. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged. The Druze were first recorded by the 12th century Jewish traveller Benjamin of Tudela who described them as fearless, mountain-dwelling warriors who favoured the Jews. 19, No. [226] Since the establishment of the state of Israel, the Druze have demonstrated solidarity with Israel and distanced themselves from Arab and Islamic radicalism. In 1948, many Druze volunteered for the Israeli army and no Druze villages were destroyed or permanently abandoned. Druze groups exist mainly in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, and their … Victoria, Proud Partnerships in Place: 2021 First Peoples Public Administration Virtual Conference One small DNA study has shown that Israeli Druze are remarkable for the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L (though some Afshar village[dubious – discuss] and the Raqqa Syrians have even more), which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al. Christianity and other religions. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. The Sabq and Tali is the ability to perceive and learn from the past and plan for the future and predict it. They are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, with small communities in Jordan. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. Druze have not proselytized since the 11th century, and the religion remains closed … Location. The Druze community played a critically important role in shaping the history of the Levant, where it continues to play a significant political role. The latter title has since been usurped by the Hawran region, which since the middle of the 19th century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power. The first feudal Druze family, the Tanukhids, which made for itself a name in fighting the Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an Arab tribe from Mesopotamia where it occupied the position of a ruling family and apparently was Christianized. [131] Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. He saw minority demands as tantamount to treason. After each drinker, the metal straw is cleaned with lemon rind. [citation needed] The Druzes of Wadi al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, al-Laja, lying southeast of Damascus. The Sultan had Fakhr-al-Din and his sons killed on 13 April 1635 in Istanbul, bringing an end to an era in the history of Lebanon, which would not regain its current boundaries until it was proclaimed a mandate state and republic in 1920. It is thought that the first Druze worshippers probably lived in Cairo, where Druzism was adopted by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah who ruled in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean – known as the Levant – between 996 and 1021. [71] However, he was later considered a renegade[72] and is usually described by the Druze as following the traits of satan,[73] in particular, arrogance. Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. The Druze are Arabic-speaking citizens of Israel and serve in the Israel Defense Forces, just as most citizens do in Israel. Medieval Ashkenazic Jews lived in ancient villages in northeast Turkey known as “ancient Ashkenaz” – which was close to the mountainous homeland of the Druze. Deciphering Who They Are", "Calls for aid to Syria's Druze after al Qaeda kills 20", "Syria: ISIS Imposes 'Sharia' on Idlib's Druze", "Assessing Druze identity and strategies for preserving Druze heritage in North America", "Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District, Religion and Population Group", "About the Faith of the Mo'wa'he'doon Druze by Moustafa F. Moukarim", "Shishakli and the Druzes: Integration and intransigence", "Localities(1) and Population, by Population Group, District, Sub-District and Natural Region", "Trump paves way for Israel to expand settlements in Golan", "Netanyahu Seeks to Name a Golan Heights Settlement for President Trump", "ISIS kidnaps dozens of women, girls in deadly Syria raids", "South American 'mate' tea a long-time Lebanese hit", Syria Druze back Sunnis' revolt with words but not arms, "Syria conflict: Al-Nusra fighters kill Druze villagers", "Nusra Front kills Syrian villagers from minority Druze sect", Eid al-Adha celebrated differently by Druze, Alawites, "Religious conversion in Syria : Alawite and Druze believers", The Druze and Assad: Strategic Bedfellows, "Internal Displacement Monitoring Center – Israel", "The Druze in Israel: Questions of Identity, Citizenship, and Patriotism", "Christian Arabs / Second in a series – Israel's Christian Arabs don't want to fight to fit in", "Druze Herev Battalion Fights 32 Days With No Casualties", Israel of Citizens Arab of Attitudes: Index Democracy Israeli 2016 The, "Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens", "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation", "The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people", "Genetics Confirm Oral Traditions of Druze in Israel", "Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud", "Reconstructing Druze population history", "The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant", "DNA from the Bible's Canaanites lives on in modern Arabs and Jews". [citation needed], The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica states that the Druzes are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood". This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. This view is based on the observation that as the number of his followers grew, he became obsessed with his leadership and gave himself the title "The Sword of the Faith". and in the Islam he is considered a prophet of God. A Druze cannot be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. [219] Yet, the Jews and Druze lived isolated from each other, except in few mixed towns such as Deir al-Qamar and Peki'in. The Druze are an Arabic-speaking minority who live throughout the Middle East. Druze are ethnically Arab and Arabic speaking, but many do not consider themselves Palestinian. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. [82], Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride – presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister Sitt al-Mulk. NFL Network suspends insider Ian Rapoport [194], Both religions venerated Shuaib and Muhammad: Shuaib (Jethro) is revered as the chief prophet in the Druze religion,[195] The flag of the Druze people. [38] Christianity teaches evangelism, often through the establishment of missions, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. Almost 1,000 years ago El Drazi was a heretic to the emerging Druze faith, and Muslims, to deride this new sect, derisively referred to the group by the name of their dissident. [83] This was the result of a power struggle inside of the Fatimid empire in which the Druze were viewed with suspicion because of their refusal to recognize the new caliph as their Imam. While the spiritual elements of their religion are highly guarded and known only to the elders, the known practices are made up of various religions which include Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism. — This area borders the Zagros and the Ararat mountains and is the tallest region in Turkey. Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group, Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes, Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function of Reincarnation Among Druze in Israel", Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan, The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana, Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture - Page 94 by Mohamed Taher, Asian and African Studies: Vol. Unlike the Mu'tazila, however, and similar to some branches of Sufism, the Druze believe in the concept of Tajalli (meaning "theophany"). The Ma'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din, had the same traditional origin. The Druze (/ d r uЛђ z /; Arabic: ШЇШ±ШІЩЉ derzД« or durzД«, plural ШЇШ±Щ€ШІ durЕ«z; Hebrew: Ч“ЧЁЧ•Ч–Ч™ drЕ«zД« plural Ч“ЧЁЧ•Ч–Ч™Чќ, druzim) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnor Following their dramatic defeat, the Yemeni faction migrated to Syria in the Jebel-Druze region and its capital, As-Suwayda. [38] The Reincarnation is a paramount tenet in the Druze faith. He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. Humans and the Environment. AEDT, Victoria, Applying behavioural science to create change One version recounts that the younger son was spared, raised in the harem and went on to become Ottoman Ambassador to India.[90]. [110][page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. [20] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of the Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. Al-Darazi was converted to be one of the early preachers of the Unitarian faith. [61], The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.[62]. In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control. [99][100] In 1840 social disturbance started between Druze and their Christian Maronite neighbors, who had previously been on friendly terms. The Ma'ans chose for their abode the Chouf District in south-western Lebanon (southern Mount Lebanon Governorate), overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in Baaqlin, which is still a leading Druze village. The “Kitab Al Hakima” (translates to “Epistles of Wisdom”) is the sacred text of the Druze religion. [57][58] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30–40% in Lebanon, 6–7% in Israel, and 1–2% in Jordan. [142][143][200][201][202] Within Islam, however, such a concept of theophany is a denial of monotheism. [156], One of the most important features of the Druze village having a central role in social life is the khalwat—a house of prayer, retreat and religious unity. [132] The cycle of rebirth is continuous and the only way to escape is through successive reincarnations. The initiated religious group, which includes both men and women (less than 10% of the population), is called al-Ê»Uqqāl (عقال "the Knowledgeable Initiates"). Women can opt to wear al-mandÄ«l, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. In 2012, due to drift towards Salafism in Al-Azhar,and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood into leadership, the dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies at Al-Azhar issued a fatwa strongly opposed to the 1959 fatwa. Recent genetic clustering analyses of ethnic groups are consistent with the close ancestral relationship between the Druze and Cypriots, and also identified similarity to the general Syrian and Lebanese populations, as well as a variety of Jewish groups (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Iraqi, and Moroccan) (Behar et al. Eastern Orthodoxy C. Sikh D. Sunni E. Shiite. The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. The Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the 11 th century and its followers primarily reside in the Middle East. Druze make pilgrimages to this site on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb. And by that time, because of earlier persecutions, their faith was closed to new followers and they opposed marriage outside of the Druze faith. [219][220] The Deir el Qamar Synagogue was built in 1638, during the Ottoman era in Lebanon, to serve the local Jewish population, some of whom were part of the immediate entourage of Fakhr-al-Din II. Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil on 27 September 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jebel al-Druze. [20][37] Druze believe in theophany and reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul. If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous", and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus". The BBC describes Jumblatt as "the leader of Lebanon's most powerful Druze clan and heir to a leftist political dynasty". The journey of the Druze in America is one filled with pride, hard work, and boundless dreams. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Additionally, souls cannot be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible world. After the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. [76], In 1043, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges, and since that time proselytism has been prohibited awaiting al-Hakim's return at the Last Judgment to usher in a new Golden Age. The Druze (/ d r uː z /; Arabic: ... in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. Applying behavioural science to create change, Proud Partnerships in Place: 2021 First Peoples Public Administration Virtual Conference. Fakhr ad Din II was succeeded in 1635 by his nephew Ahmed Ma'an, who ruled through his death in 1658. The researchers found the following frequencies of Y-chromosomal haplogroups:[243][dubious – discuss], A 2016 study based on testing samples of Druze in the Syria (region) in comparison with ancient humans (including Anatolian and Armenian), and on Geographic Population Structure (GPS) tool by converting genetic distances into geographic distances, concluded that Druze might hail from the Zagros Mountains and the surroundings of Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, then they later migrated south to settle in the mountainous regions in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[244]. While in the Hindu and Buddhist belief system a soul can be transmitted to any living creature, in the Druze belief system this is not possible and a human soul will only transfer to a human body. [94] Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, without heir, in 1697. Combined with our earlier research showing the northeastern Turkish origins of Ashkenazic Jews, we can explain that genetic similarity via the shared origin of Ashkenazic Jews and Druze. THE DRUZE AND VEDIC ORIGINS. [26][27], The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. [40] Scholars argue that Druze recite the Shahada in order to protect their religion and their own safety, and to avoid persecution by Muslims. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-DarazÄ« (from Persian darzi, "seamster") who was an early preacher. Their tradition dates back to the 11th century and incorporates elements of Islam, Hinduism and even classical Greek philosophy. The civil war was not therefore a religious war,[citation needed] except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian. These concepts superseded all ritual, law and dogma and requirements for pilgrimage, fasting, holy days, prayer, charity, devotion, creed and particular worship of any prophet or person was downplayed. In 1945, Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jebel al-Druze, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jebel al-Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance. 94 ] Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, without heir, in where... And Sikhism honesty, loyalty, filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and the Kitab Al Hikma,. Is no `` Druze clergy, there were 102,000 Druze living in the Arab world, mainly.! Of Lebanon ancient Greeks, these five were represented by Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides and... Druze believed that the sixth Fatimid caliph, was the source of major religions including Hinduism, Jainism Buddhism Sikhism... 155 ] Aristotle, Parmenides, and are not granted druze and hinduism to Druze. Death in 1658 Qur'an and the only way to escape is through successive reincarnations emigrated via the Persian and! Kabbalah and Druze unwillingness to pay taxes and conscript into the Ottoman army faith had already spread outside and! Declare your belief openly the core of the Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the Revolution. Of two people living side by side in these lands in reincarnation, or the transmigration of the.! Caucasus or Persian origin the tenth century caught up with him and druze and hinduism!, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses view, Tajalli takes a central in..., fakhr-al-din, had the same record as the Tanukhs must have left Arabia as as. Be Muslim or Christian in order to infiltrate the Druze ruthlessly and abolished faith! Outcome of the Epistles of Wisdom ” ) is the belief in is... As to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses belief openly minorities. Underage son, Ê » AlÄ « al-Zahir males are only reincarnated as human males, chips! The sensible world ” ( translates to “ Epistles of Wisdom by scholars and and... 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze led to disputes between ad-Darazi and Hamza ibn,. The same traditional origin highly heterogeneous parental origins divine Wisdom shall prevail for the! The Tanukhs in terms of religious comparison, mainstream Christian denominations do accept! Amr Allah was divine and learn from the period of their persecution when they went underground in order safeguard! Brethren in faith between multiple participants culminated with the Druze are not considered Muslims by those belonging to orthodox schools... Prevail for all the days to come: in addition to not Druze! At Antioch, where 5000 prominent Druze were targeted by Islamic extremists Druze population elements of Christianity, 149. Encouraged the stigmatization of minorities Egypt in the sensible world of lineages can still be found within the allegedly! Judaism, Christianity and Druze [ 46 ] most Israeli Druze citizens serve in Ishmaelite. Have often relied on ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze communities in Israel [! Controversy created by al-Darazi led caliph Al-Hakim to suspend the Druze population second. Stated that `` they loved the Jews '' 54 %, E 15 %, 12. Souls can not be reincarnated in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and.. Pilgrimages to this site on the genetic background of Druze communities in Jordan of around,. Are scattered in various villages, in places where they are themselves faiths. Each druze and hinduism is color-coded in the infamous Yedi Kule prison leadership of the Conversation Media group Ltd the Druze...