This insect is omnivorous and its mouthparts are well suited to chewing on a wide variety of food items. The structure of the mouthparts was studied in 24 species representing 10 families and 4 suborders of cockroaches. Insect mouthparts are derived from the appendages of four of the segments forming the insect head. Cockroach & grasshopper. Size about 25 to 45 mm long cm and 8 to 12 broad The labrum forms the main feeding tube, through which blood is sucked. The proboscis, as seen in adult Lepidoptera, is one of the defining characteristics of the morphology of the order; it is a long tube formed by the paired galeae of the maxillae. At the apex of each stipes are two lobes, the inner lacinia and outer galea (plurals laciniae and galeae). This website uses cookies, if you want to use our site without cookies or would like to know more, please see Privacy & Cookies. If you continue to use this site we'll assume that you're happy with this. [9], Head, Mandibles, and unusual Labium of Dragonfly Nymph (viewed from below), Insect mouthparts - Amateur Entomologists' Society (AES), Structure and function of insect mouthparts, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Insect_mouthparts&oldid=992436193, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 07:25. Unlike humans, the cockroach skeleton is on the outside if its body. Typically, together with the maxillae, the labium assists manipulation of food during mastication. The hypopharynx divides the oral cavity into two parts: the cibarium or dorsal food pouch and ventral salivarium into which the salivary duct opens. The most notable part of the cockroach anatomy is the skeleton. The epipharynx is a single small membranous piece lying under the labrum and bears taste buds. 2. They have a five segmented palp which is sensory and often concerned with taste. • … The American Cockroach is both omnivorous and opportunistic in its feeding habits, and is known to eat cheese, tea, beer, dried skin, dead animals, as well as various plants, and glossy paper. The housefly is a typical sponging insect. At the outer margin, the typical galea is a cupped or scoop-like structure, located over the outer edge of the labium. Some insects do not have chewing mouthparts as adults but do chew solid food when they feed while they still are larvae. A singly structure, the hypopharynx (tongue like organ) is located centrally. All cockroaches have the following characteristics: Oval and flattened shape. Specialization has mostly been for piercing and sucking, although a range of specializations exist, as these modes of feeding have evolved a number of times (for example, mosquitoes and aphids (which are true bugs) both pierce and suck, however female mosquitoes feed on animal blood whereas aphids feed on plant fluids. As the saliva dissolves the food, the solution is then drawn up into the mouth as a liquid. Insect Body Parts And Their Functions. This system remains little changed in all insects which chew their food, both larvae and adults. During piercing, the labium remains outside the food item's skin, folding away from the stylet. These mouthparts help the cockroach to bite and chew on … 1.6) . As is usually the case with insects, there are variations: some moths, such as species of Serrodes and Achaea do pierce fruit to the extent that they are regarded as serious orchard pests. which must be broken down by catabolic reactions into smaller molecules (i.e. Some are herbivorous, like aphids and leafhoppers, while others are carnivorous, like assassin bugs and mosquitoes (females only). Each mouthpart pair … In many species the musculature of the labium is much more complex than that of the other jaws, because in most, the ligula, palps and prementum all can be moved independently. Additional functions, like defense, brood care, and male-male competition, modified the mouthparts in some insects. The mandibles are caudal to the labrum and anterior to the maxillae. These structures are homologous to the lacinia and galea of maxillae. Cockroach Anatomy. Saliva containing anticoagulants, is injected into the food item and blood sucked out, each through different tubes. The Alimentary System 2. In the larva of scarabids and termites, illeum is pouch like for housing symbionts and acts as fermentation chamber. Each cockroach has eyes, a mouth, salivary glands, antennae, brain, heart, colon, reproductive system, mid-guts, legs, esophagus, gastric caecea, fat bodies and malpighian tubules. Roaches' mouths, like those of other insects, are significantly different from mammals' mouths. Foregut- It is also known as stomadaeum and is divided into buccal chamber, pharynx, oesophagus, crop, and gizzard. Insect mouthparts. All but a few adult Lepidoptera lack mandibles (the superfamily known as the mandibulate moths have fully developed mandibles as adults), but also have the remaining mouthparts in the form of an elongated sucking tube, the proboscis. That is also why it can be hard to sneak up on a roach. Head. Cockroach Legs. Biting and chewing type: e.g. This allows their legs to start moving when vibrations are sensed, often before their brain even processes a threat. The thorax is covered by a large plate (the pronotum), which extends partly over the head. Hindgut- It is also known as proctodaeum. The housefly is able to eat solid food by secreting saliva and dabbing it over the food item. Insect Mouthparts Examine the head of a live cockroach (Periplaneta americana, Blaberus spp., or Gromphadorhina portentosa) under the lower power of the dissecting microscope. It actually represents the fused pair of ancestral second maxillae. These are segmented legs that are attached to the cockroach’s body in its middle area, called the thorax. It is short, tubular and lined with glandular endoderm. During feeding, however, it extends to reach the nectar of flowers or other fluids. Paired mandibles and maxillae are present, together forming the stylet, which is used to pierce an animal's skin. Maxillae in most insects function partly like mandibles in feeding, but they are more mobile and less heavily sclerotised than mandibles, so they are more important in manipulating soft, liquid, or particulate food rather than cutting or crushing food such as material that requires the mandibles to cut or crush. For example, true bugs, such as shield bugs, feed on the fluids of plants. Its function is to push the masticated food into the mouth. Typical examples are adult moths and butterflies. An insect uses its digestive system to extract nutrients and other substances from the food it consumes. Refer to the body parts of a cockroach adult in figure 2-3. All the components of the mouthparts are present without any modification. At the apical end of the maxilla are attached galea and lacinia, the former functions like a cover and the latter is toothed and is used for chewing food. The labellum's surface is covered by minute food channels, formed by the interlocking elongate hypopharynx and epipharynx, forming a proboscis used to channel liquid food to the oesophagus. The details of the labrum, mandibles, maxillae, labium, and hypopharynx, characteristic of different suborders of Blattodea and some families of Blaberoidea, were revealed. They function like rear antennae and are connected to the roach's legs by the abdominal nerve ganglia. So the mouthparts of the cockroach help in ingestion and are known as chewing type of mouthparts. The labium typically is a roughly quadrilateral structure, formed by paired, fused secondary maxillae. There are five different structures which are used for the initial collection and processing of food:-. Chewing & Biting Type: The basic and most primitive type of mouthparts present in grasshopper, cockroach and beetles. The defining feature of the order Hemiptera is the possession of mouthparts where the mandibles and maxillae are modified into a proboscis, sheathed within a modified labium, which is capable of piercing tissues and sucking out the liquids. ADVERTISEMENTS: Dissection: Hold the […] Certainly it is common for significant homology to be conserved, with matching structures formed from matching primordia, and having the same evolutionary origin. Dissection of Salivary Apparatus 3. The basic segmental character of the mouthparts is most apparent in insects that bite off fragments of food and then chew it before ingesting it (Fig. [8] Some moths do not feed after emerging from the pupa, and have greatly reduced, vestigial mouthparts or none at all. Cockroach Mouth. It assists in swallowing the food. Most of this food is ingested in the form of macromolecules and other complex substances (such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats, nucleic acids, etc.) In chewing insects, adductor and abductor muscles extend from inside the cranium to within the bases of the stipites and cardines much as happens with the mandibles in feeding, and also in using the maxillae as tools. Hence together with labrum of head capsule and hypopharynx, these appendages copmrise the mouth parts of the cockroach. At the back of the abdomen are two short protrusions called cerci. Insect mouthparts show a multitude of different functional mechanisms across the wide diversity of species considered insects. Insect mouth parts show many cases of parallel evolution, the same end being independently achieved along similar, but not identical lines. In non-chewing insects, such as adult Lepidoptera, the maxillae may be drastically adapted to other functions. They function in various ways: probing/sipping, sponging/lapping, piercing/sucking, etc. It is probably the most loathed about insect ever present. [1] It is the major component of the floor of the mouth. 2.2A). ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the dissection of cockroach. Its scientific name is Periplaneta americana.Morphology - Body is covered with hard chitinous exoskeleton. Feed the roach (water, bread or fruit) and note the movements of its mouthparts. The 'primitive' arrangement of mouthparts is seen in the cockroach - here they are used for biting. Each maxilla consists of two parts, the proximal cardo (plural cardines), and distal stipes (plural stipites). The external morphology of Lepidoptera is the physiological structure of the bodies of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera, also known as butterflies and moths.Lepidoptera are distinguished from other orders by the presence of scales on the external parts of the body and appendages, especially the wings. Examples of chewing insects include dragonflies, grasshoppers and beetles. The biting mouthparts of an adult damselfly make short work of an aphid. Mouthparts of honey bee worker (posterior view). Download NEET UG Biology Cockroach Comparative Study MCQs in pdf, Biology chapter wise Multiple Choice Questions free, IMPORTANT POINTSCockroach show characteristic features in segmentation, symmentry and body organization. These are collectively known as “haustellate” mouthparts (derived from the Latin verb “haustor” meaning to draw up or suck). It can also sense taste and smells. The mouthparts of cockroach are developed to suit its habit of feeding on solid food and as a result it has well developed mandibles. Cockroaches have a pair of compound eyes, but have poor vision except they can distinguish easily between light and dark. In carnivorous chewing insects, the mandibles commonly are particularly serrated and knife-like, and often with piercing points. In many species it is membranous and associated with salivary glands. The role of the labium in some insects however, is adapted to special functions; perhaps the most dramatic example is in the jaws of the nymphs of the Odonata, the dragonflies and damselflies. 1). Cockroach, (order Blattodea), also called roach, any of about 4,600 species of insects that are among the most primitive living winged insects, appearing today much like they do in fossils that are more than 320 million years old. It has a long and coiled alimentary canaldivided into- foregut, midgut, and hindgut. To some extent the maxillae are more mobile than the mandibles, and the galeae, laciniae, and palps also can move up and down somewhat, in the sagittal plane, both in feeding and in working, for example in nest building by mud-dauber wasps. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living Neopteran insects. Like the maxillary palps, the labial palps aid sensory function in eating. Hypopharynx - a tongue-like structure in the floor of the mouth. There are five different structures which are used for the initial collection and processing of food:-. Unlike the mandibles, but like the labium, the maxillae bear lateral palps on their stipites. They surround the mouth and are external to it, unlike the condition in vertebrates in which the teeth are within the oral cavity. The earliest insects had chewing mouthparts. The hypo pharynx is single median tongue-like process at whose base the common salivary duct opens. The mandibles masficate the food to bits and finally carry them to the mouth with the help of labium. Labium is single median mouth part which has evolved by the fusion of the appendages of the 6 th body segment. In certain specialist pollinators, the proboscis may be several times the body length of the moth. [6], The wild silk moth (Bombyx mandarina) is an example of an insect that has small labial palpi and no maxillary palpi.[7]. Situated beneath (caudal to) the mandibles, paired maxillae manipulate and, in chewing insects, partly masticate, food. The mouthparts and their function in the female mosquito, Anopheles maculipennis - Volume 31 Issue 2 - G. G. Robinson Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Chewing (mandibulate) mouthparts. In bees, that feed primarily by use of a proboscis, the primary use of the mandibles is to manipulate and shape wax, and many paper wasps have mandibles adapted to scraping and ingesting wood fibres. Predatory bugs such as assassin bugs have the same mouthparts, but they are used to pierce the cuticles of captured prey. Midgut- It is also known as mesenteron or ventriculus. In some ants and termites, the mandibles also serve a defensive function (particularly in soldier castes). They have a three segmented palp which is also sensory. It covers the mouth cavity from above. i. Labrum : (Upper lip) It is flap like, bilobed and attached to the clypeus by an articular membrane. Where specialised food sources have been exploited, the mouthparts are modified, sometimes very considerably, so that the food may be obtained satisfactorily. Like the mandibles, maxillae are innervated by the subesophageal ganglia. Cockroach eyes contain more than a thousand lenses, allowing them to see multiple things at once. These palps serve as organs of touch and taste in feeding and in the inspection of potential foods and/or prey. Those arthropods that feed directly on host tissues generally retain the chewing-type mouthparts like those of cockroaches (Fig. Several roaches will be Insects are really amazing but the reason they can do what they do is that of their body parts and the functions they are allowed to so here are the names and functions of their body parts. Typically the mandibles are the largest and most robust mouthparts of a chewing insect, and it uses them to masticate (cut, tear, crush, chew) food items. Mouth parts of cockroach Ventrally, an opening called mouth is present on the head that remains surrounded by the mouth parts consisting of a pair of mandibles, first maxillae, labium or fused second maxillae, hypopharynx and labrum. Labrum - a cover which may be loosely referred to as the upper lip. Dissection of Reproductive System. In males of some species, such as of Lucanidae and some Cerambycidae, the mandibles are modified to such an extent that they do not serve any feeding function, but are instead used to defend mating sites from other males. See also mechanism of folding of the mouthparts. Physiology of Digestion: The variety of food consumed by the cockroach mainly contains carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Identifying Cockroach Species. Cockroach mouth parts The remaining three pairs of cephalic appendages are small and located around the mouth. The mouth of a cockroach has the ability to move from one side to the other. On the other hand, even structures that physically are almost identical, and share almost identical functionality as well, may not be homologous; their analogous functions and appearance might be the product of convergent evolution. The 'primitive' arrangement of mouthparts is seen in the cockroach - here they are used for biting. The hypopharynx is a somewhat globular structure, located medially to the mandibles and the maxillae. It is the primitive type of mouth part and consists of the following parts. Mouthparts of parasitic arthropods are typically adapted for feeding on host body fluids, particularly blood but also lymph, skin secretions, and tears. For its body size and weight, this is comparable to a human being running at a speed of 210 mph. The food channel draws liquid and liquified food to the oesophagus by capillary action. In these insects, the labium folds neatly beneath the head and thorax, but the insect can flick it out to snatch prey and bear it back to the head, where the chewing mouthparts can demolish it and swallow the particles.[2]. Dissection of Nervous System 4. Digestive and Excretory Systems . Hindgut is differentiated into three regions viz., ileum, colon and rectum. Also learn about:- 1. 1. Orientation of the mouthparts: • Hypognathous. A chewing insect has a pair of mandibles, one on each side of the head. The main functions of hindgut are the absorption of water, salt and other useful substances from the faeces and urine. Two sets of muscles move the mandibles in the coronal plane: abductor muscles move insects' mandibles apart (laterally); adductor muscles bring them together (medially). Two pairs of membranous wings when present. These help in 'biting and chewing' its food. The antennae – can be found on top of the insect’s head. Specializations are generally described thereafter. In herbivorous chewing insects mandibles tend to be broader and flatter on their opposing faces, as for example in caterpillars. They are used to steady and manipulate the food. But the fact remains that cockroaches have inhabited the earth for the past 300 million years and continue to be present on earth.Read along to know more about the external morphology and internal anatomy of a cockroach which belongs to the phylum Arthropoda.The common cockroach is scientifically known by the name Periplaneta americana. Previous: Respiration | Next: Life Cycles. It consists of ileum, colon, rectum. You Many insects take in liquid food. the cockroach body. Killing: The cockroach is usually killed with chloroform. The anterior end of midgut consists of eight blind globular hepatic caecum which secretes digestive enzymes. It is movable. This is facilitated by the development of a sucking' arrangement from the mouthparts. Like most external features of arthropods, the mouthparts of hexapoda are highly derived. The labial palps borne on the sides of labium are the counterparts of maxillary palps. The labium is attached at the rear end of the structure called cibarium, and its broad basal portion is divided into regions called the submentum, which is the proximal part, the mentum in the middle, and the prementum, which is the distal section, and furthest anterior. In this page, the individual mouthparts are introduced for chewing insects. Some of today’s more “advanced” insects have mouthparts that have become adapted for ingesting liquid food. This section deals only with insects that feed by sucking fluids, as a rule without piercing their food first, and without sponging or licking. On the head, cockroaches have chewing mouthparts used to chew or scrape off food too large for them to swallow whole. Labium - the lower cover, often referred to as the lower lip. In order of appearance, from anterior to posterior, chewing mouthparts consists of a single labrum (upper lip). The moths and butterflies are major examples of such adaptations. Maxillae in most insects function partly like mandibles in feeding, but they are more mobile and less heavily sclerotised than mandibles, so they are more important in manipulating soft, liquid, or particulate food rather than cutting or crushing food such as material that requires the mandibles to cut or crush. Most insects have 6 legs and so do cockroaches. In female mosquitoes, all mouthparts are elongated. This is also called lower lip. Unlike sucking organs in other orders of insects, the Lepidopteran proboscis can coil up so completely that it can fit under the head when not in use. Compound eyes and 2 simple ocelli like spots. The prementum bears a structure called the ligula; this consists of an inner pair of lobes called glossae and a lateral pair called paraglossae. 3. Primitive condition in Insecta. A number of insect orders (or more precisely families within them) have mouthparts that pierce food items to enable sucking of internal fluids. [3][4][5], In the honey bee, the labium is elongated to form a tube and tongue, and these insects are classified as having both chewing and lapping mouthparts. The labium is innervated by the sub-esophageal ganglia. The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) has “generalized” mouthparts. The labium encloses all other mouthparts like a sheath. The biting mouthparts of an adult damselfly make short work of an aphid. Functions of the mouth parts: However, many mouthparts serve the same function as parts of a mammal's mouth: The labrum and labium form lips. In bull ants, the mandibles are elongate and toothed, used both as hunting and defensive appendages. The mouthparts are well de- veloped in cockroaches. Common in phytophagous groups inhabiting open habitats (Thysanura, cockroaches, mantids, phytophagous beetles). The salivary glands discharge saliva through it. Rudimentary mouthparts are found in … The mouth parts of the cockroach help in 'biting and chewing' its food. Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding. Maxillae - 'pincers' which are less powerful than the mandibles. They also may be adapted for feeding externally on skin, sloughed skin scales, hair, or feathers. Copyright © 1997-2020 Amateur Entomologists' Society. After Michener (1974, fig. Two mandibles have cutting and grinding surfaces like teeth. Feeding I: Structure and Function of Mouthparts. Mouthparts are directed ventrally downward. Most of the time they are folded behind the head and held together. It can be killed successfully by drowning in water. The cockroach can actually outgrow his skeleton, at which time he molts, or sheds the outgrown skeleton, often referred to as a shell. 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